THE MEDIEVAL WORLD, PART TWO
MOHAMMED: 569-622 (in Mecca)
1. Name - means "highly praised" -- orphaned as a young child.
a. Age 12 - caravan to Syria where he learned much about Judaism and Christianity.
b. Age 25 - married the widow of a well to do business man (caravan driver).
Description of Mohammed at age 45 by his adoptive son:
Of middle stature, neither tall nor short. His complexion was rosy white; his eyes black; his hair thick, brilliant, and beautiful, fell to is shoulders. His profuse beard fell to his breast ..... There was such sweetness in his appearance that no one, once in is presence, could leave him. If I hungered, a single look at the Prophet's face dispelled the hunger. Before him all forgot their griefs and pains.
3. He learned to admire the morals of the Christians, the monotheism of the Jews, and the strong support given to Christianity and Judaism by the possession of Scriptures revealed from God.
* The Arab World was characterized by Polytheism, tribal warfare, and political division.
* Believed a new religion would unify all these functions into a healthy unified nation.
4. As he approached 40: Mohammed became more absorbed with religion.
610: A Vision
While I was asleep, with a coverlet of silk brocade on which was some writing, the angel Gabriel appeared to me and said, "Read" I said, "I do not read." He pressed with the coverlet so tightly that I thought I was dead. Then he let me go, and said, "Read!" ...... So I read aloud, and he departed from me at last. And I awoke from my sleep, and it was as though these words were written on my heart. I went forth until, when I was midway on the mountain, I heard a voice from heaven saying, "O Mohammed! thou art the messenger of Allah, and I am Gabriel." I raised my head toward heaven to see, and lo, Gabriel in the form of a man, with feet set evenly on the rim of the sky, saying, O Mohammed! thou art the messenger of Allah, and I am Gabriel."
5. Other visions came to him which were set forth in the Koran.
* During the next four years, Mohammed announces himself as the Prophet of Allah.
6. This new religion was violently opposed by the old Polytheism of the area.
7. 620: Vision
One night, it seemed to him, he was miraculously transported in his sleep to Jerusalem; there a winged horse, Buraq, awaited him at the wailing wall of the Jewish Temple ruins, flew him to heaven, and back again; and by another miracle the Prophet found himself, the next morning, safe in Mecca.
* The legend of this flight made Jerusalem a third holy city for Islam.
8. The Hegira:
a. 620: Mohammed preached to merchants who had come from Medina.
b. His doctrine of monotheism, a divine messenger, and the Last Judgment were familiar to them from the creed of Medina Jews.
c. 622: 73 citizens of Medina came privately to Mohammed and invited him to make Medina his home.
* Persecution in Mecca convinced him to accept this offer.
d. September 24, 622: Mohammed arrived at Medina -- 200 of his followers had preceded him disguised as pilgrims.
* 17 Years Later: Caliph Omar designated the first day - July 16, 622 of the Arabian year in which this Hegira took place as the official beginning of the Mohammedan Era.
MOHAMMED IN MEDINA: 622-630
1. Create a religious brotherhood in a Theocratic State - with no distinction between political and religious leaders.
2. Religious Ceremony:
a. Mohammed prostrated himself three times.
* Symbolized the submission (surrendering) of the soul to Allah -- Islam.
b. A Moslem - is one who has surrendered himself to Allah.
3. A majority of the Arabs (the Disaffected) viewed the new Creed as a threat to their traditions and liberties.
4. Most Medina Jews clung to their own Faith -- Mohammed drew up an agreement (Concordat) with the Jews.
The Jews who attach themselves to our commonwealth shall be protected from all insults and vexations; they shall have an equal right with our own people to our assistance and good offices; they form with the Moslems one composite nation; they shall practice their religion as freely as the Moslems ....... They shall join the Moslems in defending Yathrib against all enemies ........ All future disputes between those who accept this charter shall be referred, under God to the Prophet.
5. 630: after wining the allegiance of various Arab tribes -- Mohammed gathered 10,000 men and marched on Mecca which became the "Holy City" of Islam.
6. 632: Mohammed's death -- almost all of Arabia had accepted Islam.
1. The Koran, the holy book of Islam -- it contains the revelations of Allah to Mohammed.
2. The center of the Faith was Allah - monotheistic.
3. Did not reject Christianity or Judaism, and incorporated much of their teachings into Islam.
4. Final Revelation before the last judgment.
5. Allah had sent the last of the prophets to the Arab Nation, the Chosen People of God.
1. Pray five times a day facing Mecca.
2. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his lifetime.
3. Alms Tax - for the poor and the religious community.
4. Fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Romadan, ninth month of the Moslem Calendar.
FIVE PILLARS OF FAITH
1. Profession of Faith (Islam)
3. Alms Giving
The Sixth Pillar: Jihad (Holy War)
1. Purpose: to spread the Faith of Islam.
2. "Whosoever falls in battle, his sins are forgiven."
* Warrior - promised heavenly rewards.
3. 100 years after Mohammed's death - Islam had spread through out Arabia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, Portugal, and Spain.
4. Moslem advance stopped in Western Europe at the Battle of Tours in 732 by Charles Martel.
THE ISLAMIC EMPIRE:
1. At Mohammed's death, no heir was designated to lead the Moslems.
2. Abu Bakr, a close friend, was elected Caliph or successor to the Prophet.
a. The law of the Koran was used as the basis to rule the Islamic World.
b. Power Struggles surrounded the election of the first four caliphs.
c. The Caliph functioned as both religious and political leader.
3. 661: A leading family of Mecca established the Umayyad (ooMiad) Dynasty.
a. Presided over the expansion of Islam making Damascus in Syria the capital of the Islamic World.
* Mecca remained the spiritual center of Islam.
b. Problems: different groups within the Islamic World began to assert their independence.
4. Sunnite and Shiite Moslems (Competing branches within Islam):
a. Conflict - over who was the rightful successor of Mohammed.
b. Sunnites supported the Umayyad Dynasty.
c. Shiites were loyal to a religious leader who traced his family back to Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed.
5. 750: The Abbasids (uhBasihds) overthrew the Umayyads.
a. In Spain - a member of the Umayyads established himself as a Caliph.
b. North Africa also remained independent of the Abbasids.
6. After 1000: The Abbasid Dynasty began to decline.
* In the 11th Century: The Seljuk Turks invaded the Islamic Empire.
ANTI SEMITISM: 500-1306
1. Economic and Religious Conflict:
a. Moslems resented Jewish rejection of Mohammed.
b. Christians shocked at Christ's own people not accepting His divinity.
* The crucifixion of Christ blamed on the Jews.
2. The Theodosian Code (439), the Council of Clermont (535), and the Council of Toledo (589): Prohibited the appointment of Jews to positions in which they could impose penalties upon Christians.
3. The Council of Orleans (538): Ordered Jews to stay indoors during Holy Week.
4. The Third Council of Lateran (1179) prohibited Christian midwives or nurses to serve Jews.
5. The Council of Beziers (1246) condemned the employment of Jewish physicians by Christians.
6. The Fourth Council of Lateran (1215):
Jews or Saracens of both sexes after their twelfth year - were to wear a distinctive color - the men on their hats, the women on their veils. The badge was ordinarily a wheel or circle of yellow cloth, some three inches in diameter, sewn prominently upon the clothing. The decree was enforced in England in 1218, in France in 1219, in Hungary in 1279; it was sporadically carried out in Spain, Italy, and Germany before the 15th Century. Its observance declined after the 16th Century, and only ended with the French Revolution.
7. 1095: Godfrey Bouillon who accepted the leadership of the First Crusade - announced that he would avenge the blood of Jesus upon the Jews, and would leave not one of them alive.
8. Jews of England were excluded from land holding and from guilds.
* They became merchants and financiers - jealousy grew over their wealth.
* 1290 - Edward I ordered the remaining Jews to leave the country.
a. 1254: Louis IX banished Jews from France confiscating their property, a few years later he allowed them to return.
b. 1306: Philip the Fair imprisoned all the Jews then expelled them with only a day's provisions.
"For that one death on the cross how may crucifixions!" ex. The Sorrow of the Jews
PALESTINE: THE HOLY LANDS
1. Conquered by the Arabs in the Seventh Century.
2. Christians and Jews: if they paid taxes and observed the law, they were allowed to practice their religion.
3. 11th Century: Moslem power shifted from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks.
4. The Seljuk Turks:
a. Warlike people from Central Asia.
b. Converted to Islam.
c. Took control of Palestine and moved into Asia Minor.
d. Threatened Constantinople: The Byzantine Emperor appealed to the Pope at Rome.
5. The Turks were less tolerant than the Arabs to other religions.
* Reports of Christian Persecution finally brought a reaction from Christian Europe.
CRUSADES: VIGOROUS FIGHT FOR A GOOD CAUSE
1. Pope Urban II: He wanted a Christian offensive to regain the Holy Lands from the Moslems.
2. Clermont, France - 1095: A meeting of Churchmen and French Nobles.
* Feudal Lords were urged to stop fighting among themselves, and join in a crusade against the Moslems.
3. Motivation To Go:
a. Sins of the Crusaders were to be forgiven.
b. Property and Family of a Crusader were guaranteed protection by the Church.
c. Debtors would have their debts canceled.
d. Criminals would be pardoned.
e. Possible the opportunity of gaining land and wealth.
THE FIRST CRUSADE: 1096-1099
1. Led by French and Norman Nobles crossing Europe to Constantinople.
2. Three Organized Armies: marched across Asia Minor to Palestine.
a. Heat with their heavy clothing and armor.
b. Shortage of pack animals, supplies of food and water.
c. Conflicts (quarrels) over fiefs of land that had been captured.
4. Advantage: The Turks were even more divided (less unified) than the Christians.
5. Antioch was captured before preceding to Jerusalem.
6. Succeeded in taking Jerusalem after a short siege.
Tragedy: all the Moslem and Jewish inhabitants were massacred.
But now that our men had possession of the walls and towers, wonderful sights were to be seen. Some of our men (and this was more merciful) cut off the heads of their enemies; others shot them with arrows, so that they fell from the towers; others tortured them longer by casting them into the flames. Piles of heads, hands, and feet were to be seen in the streets of thecity.......
But these were small matters compared to what happened at the Temple of Solomon..... In the Temple and Porch of Solomon men rode in blood up to their knees and bridle reins. It was a just and splendid judgment of God, that this place should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers, since it had suffered so long from their blasphemies. The city was filled with corpses and blood....
7. Four Small States were created out of conquered territory.
a. County of Edessa
b. Principality of Antioch
c. County of Tripoli
d. Kingdom of Jerusalem
8. European Feudalism was introduced, and it lasted for almost a century.
THE SECOND CRUSADE: 1146-1148
1. The city of Edessa was recaptured by the Turks and the Kingdom of Jerusalem was being threatened.
2. The Crusade of the Kings:
a. Louis VII of France.
b. Conrad III of the Holy Roman Empire.
3. The Two Armies fought separately with being defeated in Asia Minor.
4. They joined forces in Damascus, but failed to take the city.
5. After two years of fighting, both armies returned to Europe.
THE THIRD CRUSADE: 1189-1192
1. 1187: Jerusalem had been recaptured by the Moslem leader, Saladin.
2. "Crusade of the Three Kings"
a. Richard the Lion Heart of England.
b. Philip Augustus of France.
c. Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire.
a. Philip quarreled with Richard and returned to Europe.
b. Frederick Barbarossa: drowned on the way to the Holy Lands.
4. Richard failed to take Jerusalem -- he was captured and held for ransom on his return to Europe.
5. 300,000 Christians and Moslems were killed during the Third Crusade.
THE FOURTH CRUSADE: 1202-1204
1. 1202: Innocent III persuaded a group of French Knights to make the Fourth Crusade.
2. Venice agreed to provide transportation.
Payment was too expensive.
3. Venice agreed to reduce the fee if the Crusaders would capture Zara, a Christian City and commercial rival of Venice.
* Zara was captured and the entire army was excommunicated by Innocent III.
4. The Venetian Leaders planned an attack on Constantinople.
a. 1204 - Constantinople was captured.
b. "Latin Kingdom": French rule in Constantinople lasted until 1261.
5. The Byzantine Empire was permanently weakened.
RESULTS OF THE CRUSADES:
1. Militarily: failure except for the First Crusade -- nearly a century of Christian Rule.
2. Moslems - effect - result (learned from).
a. Use of the crossbow.
b. Use of carrier pigeons to transmit messages.
c. Use of gun powder.
3. From the Byzantines:
a. Mining of walls.
b. Use of Catapults to hurl stones.
4. Held back the Turks for two hundred years.
a. Knowledge of the Arabs, Greeks, and Romans.
b. Growth of Universities in Europe.
c. Renaissance and Reformation.
5. Growth of Trade opposed by the Church:
a. Towns provided better opportunities.
b. Demand for Eastern luxuries.
c. Money, banking, and credit became necessary.
6. The King:
a. Increased power to tax.
b. Towns and the increased power of the king helped to bring about the end of Feudalism.
THE REVIVAL OF TRADE AND TOWNS:
1. Starting in the 10th Century - trade gradually revived.
* Ending of Barbarian Invasions.
* More settled conditions and safer transportation.
2. Crusades: European demand for Eastern luxury products.
3. Trade stimulated the growth of towns.
4. Middle Ages - towns had not entirely disappeared.
5. Towns had become essential for commerce providing facilities for:
6. Medieval Towns -- first controlled by Feudal Lords and later gained their independence by:
a. Purchasing charters from a lord or monarch.
b. More rarely by armed uprisings for independence.
BOURGEOISIE: middle class - merchants, shopkeepers, bankers, professional people.
LEADING MEDIEVAL TRADE CENTERS:
1. Italy: Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Naples.
a. Dominated trade between Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean.
1.) Mediterranean Location.
2.) Commercial tradition dating back to the Roman Empire.
c. Products: European wheat, wine, lumber and wool -- to Eastern Ports (Alexandria and Constantinople).
2. Belgium: Bruges and Ghent (Province of Flanders)
a. At the crossroads of the trade routes from Northern Europe and Italy.
1.) Across the Mediterranean, through the straits of Gibraltor, and along the Atlantic Coast.
2.) Across the Alps and down the Rhine River.
b. Imported Eastern products for sale throughout Northern Europe and exported their own woolen cloth.
3. Northern Europe: Bremen, Hamburg, Lubek
a. Controlled trade in the Baltic and North Seas.
b. Hanseatic League: was formed in the 13th Century.
c. 14th Century: over 70 member cities.
d. Purpose: to promote commercial interests of its members.
1.) Drove pirates from the Northern Seas.
2.) Banned Non-League cities from trading in their cities.
3.) Maintained regulations for fair trade.
GUILDS IN MEDIEVAL TOWNS:
1. Merchant Guilds: association of merchants who regulated trade.
a. Taxed non-member merchants to discourage their business.
b. Established fair business practices.
* weights and measures
* quality standards
* uniform prices
c. Actively involved in town government.
2. Craft Guilds: association of skilled craftsmen who regulated their industry.
1.) Established wages and hours.
2.) Quality of material.
3.) Standards of workmanship.
4.) Production quotas and prices.
* JUST PRICE: could only cover the cost of labor and material.
* CHURCH'S ATTITUDE: cost could not allow for profit.
b. Education: training and advancement of workers.
1.) Apprentice: bound himself to a master craftsman for a period of seven years - could be promoted to a Journeyman after learning a craft.
2.) Journeyman: could be employed in a shop for a daily wage.
* After passing a test by producing a "master piece", one could become a master craftsman.
3.) Master Craftsman: could open and operate his own shop.
c. Political Role:
1.) Active in town government.
2.) Supported hospitals and provided benefits for widows, orphans, and the sick.
3.) Arranged for holiday entertainment.
VERNACULAR LANGUAGE: everyday speech that varied in different localities.
1. Early Middle Ages: only nobles and clergy were educated.
2. Universitas: a guild of teachers and students for the purpose of teaching and learning.
3. Universities" 1000-1200
a. University of Paris.
b. Oxford: specialized in theology and the liberal arts.
Liberal Arts: Latin grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
c. University of Bologna: specialized in Roman and Cannon Law.
d. University of Salerno: specialized in Medicine.
4. 1200's and 1300's: other Universities were founded throughout Europe.
5. Standard courses of study and requirements were established.
a. Bachelor of Arts: a student who had finished his apprenticeship.
b. Master of Arts: further study and examination.
1.) Would teach the liberal arts.
2.) Admitted to the guild of teachers at a commencement.
c. Professional areas of study after a M.A. ------- Theology, Law, and Medicine.
THE CHURCH: DECLINE OF TEMPORAL POWER
1. Under Innocent III: the Papacy was at its height -- supreme religious leader and claiming the right to make political decisions in Europe.
2. Temporal Power of the Church began to decline.
a. Development of strong national governments with revenues from cities.
b. Professionally trained officials (students of Roman Law).
c. Middle class felt Church laws restricted the growth of trade and industry.
3. Criticism of the Church:
a. Spirit of skepticism toward the teachings of the Church.
b. Wealth of the Church -- method of raising money.
c. Worldliness of some members of the Clergy.
BONIFACE VIII AND PHILIP IV
1. Claims of the Papacy:
a. Exclusive right to make all appointments to Church Offices.
b. Demanded that the Clergy be exempted from national laws and taxes.
2. 1294: Philip IV of France (the Fair)
a. Demanded the Clergy pay taxes to the national treasury.
b. Boniface VIII: antagonism in Italy.
1.) Interfering in the affairs of Italian city-states.
2.) Wars to extend the territory of the Papal States.
c. Boniface hesitated to antagonize France.
1.) France had supported the popes against German Emperors.
2.) Feared Taxation: would weaken the independence and power of the Church.
3. 1296: Papal Bull - Clericis Laicos
a. Ordered the Clergy not to pay taxes without the consent of the Pope.
b. Philip prevented the export of gold and silver from France.
c. Boniface: permitted clergy to make voluntary contributions for the defense of the kingdom -- necessity to be determined by the King.
4. 1302: Papal Bull - Unam Sanctam
a. Declared that the Pope was supreme on earth in both spiritual and temporal matters.
b. He was the judge of all others and only answerable to God.
5. Philip - 1302: Summoned the First Meeting of the Estates General.
a. Accused Boniface of simony and heresy, and demanded a general Council of the Church to bring the Pope to trial.
b. French Envoy in Italy seized the Pope and held him prisoner.
1.) The Pope was soon released, but died soon afterwards.
2.) The Political Power of the Papacy was permanently damaged.
THE BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY
1. Philip IV managed to get a Frenchman elected Pope.
2. The next six popes were French, and the Papacy was moved from Rome to Avignon, France.
Papal Capital: for nearly 70 years.
3. 1309 - 1377: the Papacy held prisoner in France.
4. The French Papal Court did not appear concerned with Spiritual Matters.
5. Rome: unstable and lawless conditions with the absence of Papal Rule.
THE GREAT SCHISM:
1. 1370's: a French Pope was persuaded to return to Rome where he died.
a. A Roman mob forced the College of Cardinals (the Curia) to elect an Italian Pope.
b. French Cardinals left Rome declaring the election void and illegal.
2. 1378: French Cardinals elected a French Pope.
* Each pope excommunicated the other along with the opposing Cardinals.
3. 1378 - 1417: Great Schism -- division of the Church.
4. 1414: A Church Council met at Constance in Germany -- remained in session for four years.
a. Both popes were deposed a new election was to be held after a program of reform had been adopted.
b. Bitter Disagreement: compromise -- decided a Church Council should be called at regular intervals to deal with reforms and problems.
c. Cardinals: then were allowed to elect a new pope.
SCHOLASTICISM: pure reason in defense of the faith.
FURTHER CRITICISM OF THE CHURCH:
1. Early Medieval Philosophy and Theology:
a. Peter Abelard: 1079 - 1142
1.) Sic et Non (Yes or No) quoted differing views of Church leaders on many religious questions.
2.) Importance: more than one way to interpret the Scriptures.
b. Saint Thomas Aquinas: 1225 - 1274
1.) Summa Theologica: influenced by Aristotle
2.) Christian teachings did not disagree with reason.
3.) If there was disagreement, the method of reasoning was wrong.
4.) Stated there was logical proof for the existence of God, for life after death, and the authority of the Church.
2. 1324: Defender of the Peace
a. Franciscan Order: Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun
b. Stated: Powers of Government belong to the people who only delegate them to rulers.
c. The Clergy were to save souls and decide only religious questions.
d. Penalties for sins could only come from God.
e. The Pope was the elected head of the Church and had no other power.
f. Power (authority) belonged to members and only they could delegate authority to General Church Councils.
3. John Wycliffe: 1328 - 1384
a. An English priest who condemned the wealth and worldliness of the Catholic Church.
* He (Wycliffe) denied the pope's religious supremacy.
b. Wycliffe argued that the Bible is the highest religious authority.
c. Wycliffe translated the Bible into English to allow people to use it as a guide in religious matters.
* He was denounced by the pope, and his followers, the Lollards, were persecuted as heretics.
4. John Huss: 1369 - 1415
a. Bohemian (Czech): held similar views to Wycliffe -- he was arrested and tried as a heretic - burned at the stake.
b. The Hussites revolted against authorities who opposed religious reform and Bohemian national independence.
* Forced to submit to the Catholic King of Hungary as the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
NATIONALISM: A feeling of loyalty and patriotism for a country as a whole. A feeling of belonging to a larger society rather than to only a small locality.
APPEARANCE: slowing after 1100
ENGLAND: 12th Century
1. English King's authority was partially checked by Parliament.
2. Authority Increased:
a. Single system of courts and laws.
b. Increased revenues.
c. Military power of a professional standing army.
d. Support of the rising Middle Class.
3. Manors began to disappear as serfdom declined.
4. By the end of the 16th Century:
a. Serfdom had completely disappeared in England.
b. Villages and farms of free peasants began to appear across England.
HUNDRED YEARS' WAR:
1. England held land in France causing rivalry over Aquitaine and Gascony.
* The English King was considered to be a vassal of the French King.
2. Rivalry grew over Flanders for control of the wool trade -- English need for markets.
3. French alliance with Scotland increasing the fear of a possible military threat from France.
4. Charles IV (of France): 1322 - 1328
a. Last Capetian King who died with no direct heir to the throne of France.
b. Edward III of England claimed the French Throne.
1.) His mother had been the daughter of Philip the Fair.
2.) Salic Law: the French Throne could not be inherited through the female line.
5. Opposing Armies:
a. English: foot soldiers equipped with long bows.
b. French: knights dressed in heavy armor.
a. Crecy - 1346
b. Poiteirs - 1356
c. Agincourt - 1415
* Feudal knights proved to be ineffective.
* Introduction of gunpowder.
7. The Jacquerie: 1358 (Peasant Revolt)
a. Fields destroyed causing disease and famine.
b. Intense hatred between the feudal lords and peasants arose.
8. Increased Power of Parliament:
a. To grant or withhold taxes.
b. Parliament, as well as the king, had to approve any change of law.
c. Parliament had the right to levy all taxes.
d. Any new tax had to be proposed first by the House of Commons.
e. Money could only be spent for the purpose it had been appropriated.
JOAN OF ARC: 1412 - 1431
1. Henry V of England: 1413 - 1422 -- determined to end the war; he died in France without a final victory.
2. 1428: The English held city of Orleans was under siege.
3. Joan claimed to have had visions from God.
4. Charles, The Dauphin: Joan convinced him to let her try to save Orleans and unite France.
* Significance of Reims (Charles' coronation could only occur there - capture of Orleans was critical).
a. The English were driven from Orleans.
b. Charles VII of France was crowned king in the Cathedral at Reims.
6. 1430: Joan was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English.
7. May 1431: Joan was convicted (by the English) of witchcraft and burned at the stake as a heretic.
8. 1453: The English were driven out of France -- all territory in France was lost by the English except for the city of Calais.
9. 1456: Another Church Court retried Joan and found her innocent.
1920: Joan was proclaimed a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
RESULTS OF THE WAR:
ENGLAND: John, Duke of Lancaster/Edmund, Duke of York
1. Left rival claims to the throne of England.
War of the Roses: 1455 - 1485
* Descendants of Edward III.
2. House of Lancaster - The Red Rose/House of York - The White Rose
3. Henry Tudor (Lancaster) defeated Richard III (York) at Bosworth Field in 1485.
* Henry VII: 1485 - 1509
4. Feudalism and many of the nobility had been destroyed by the war.
5. Henry married Elizabeth, a Yorkist, united England.
* Elizabeth: daughter of Edward IV, the older brother Richard III.
6. Henry established the Tudor Dynasty.
1. Charles VII: 1422 - 1461
a. Drove the English out of France.
b. Took power from the Church.
2. Louis XI: 1461 - 1483
* Strengthened the power of the king by extending his taxing authority.
3. Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy
a. Ruled much of France and a portion of the Netherlands.
b. He had sided with the English during the Hundred Years' War.
c. Defeated by Louis XI (diplomacy and use of diplomacy).
* 1477: Charles died in battle and his land was seized by Louis.
4. End of feudalism and the establishment of a unified nation.
1. By the 14th Century - The Iberian Peninsula:
b. Castille Leon
e. Granada - Moorish (Moslem)
2. Christian kingdoms continued to reduce the size of Moorish territory.
3. Marriage: 1469
* Isabella, Queen of Castille Leon, and Ferdinand, King of Aragon.
a. Two kingdoms remained separate.
b. War: Reconquista
1492: Granada was captured.
4. 16th Century: Spain resulted from the union of Castille Leon and Aragon.
5. Absolute Monarchy:
a. Took power from Church Courts and the Nobility.
b. 1492: Jews must become Christians or leave the country.
* Moors fell under the same policy.
*Problem: weakened Spain -- Jews and Moors made up the commercial middle class.