ITALY, GERMANY, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, AND EASTERN EUROPE
Italy in 1815: "a Geographical Expression"
OBSTACLES TO UNIFICATION:
1. Political Divisions:
a. Kingdom of Sardinia: included the island of Sardinia and mainland Savoy and Nice - Italian controlled (House of Savoy).
b. Duchies of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany: local rulers dominated by Austria.
c. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies: dominated by Austria.
d. Provinces of Lombardy and Venetia: annexed by Austria as a result of the Congress of Vienna.
e. The Papal States: Central Italy
2. The Metternich System: unification would be a threat to the status quo in Europe created by the Congress of Vienna.
3. Opposition of the Pope: feared that unification would interfere with his rights in the Papal States.
4. Sectionalism: different sections of Italy could not agree on who should lead a unified Italy or what kind of government a unified Italy should have.
a. Constitutional Republic.
b. Constitutional Monarchy.
c. Federation under the leadership of the Pope.
EARLY MOVEMENTS FOR UNIFICATION:
1. Conquest of Napoleon I:
a. Spread of Nationalism and Liberalism.
b. Many Italian rulers had been overthrown during the Napoleonic Era.
c. Division in Italy was restored by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
2. Risorgimento: nationalistic movement aimed at liberation and unification (resurgence) 1815 - 1870.
3. Giuseppe Mazzini: 1805 - 1872
a. Member of the Carbonari -- attempted an unsuccessful uprising against Sardinia in 1830.
b. As a result he was imprisoned and then exiled.
c. 1831: Formed "Young Italy" --- to spread nationalism through speeches and writings.
4. The Revolution of 1848:
a. Tuscany, Sardinia, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies were forced to grant constitutions.
b. Austrian rule in Lombardy and Venetia was overthrown.
c. 1849: Rome was seized and a Roman Republic was established which Mazzini was asked to govern.
d. The Metternich System:
1. A combined Austrian, French, and Spanish Army intervened in Italy.
2. Former rulers were restored and constitutions were abolished.
3. One exception: Sardinia kept its constitution and independence.
THE KINGDOM OF SARDINIA: Count Cavour
1. Admired the English system of parliamentary government with a Constitutional Monarchy.
2. 1848: participated in a revolution and helped to bring independent constitutional government to Sardinia.
3. Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia, supported liberal goals in the government.
4. 1852: Cavour became the Prime Minister of Sardinia.
5. Program of Reform:
a. Sardinia was the most effective and progressive state in Italy -- Cavour believed it could lead the rest of Italy toward unification.
b. Established: banks, factories, and railroads.
c. Negotiated treaties with other European Nations.
d. Legislation was passed to reduce the power and influence of the Church.
Jesuits: were forced to leave Sardinia.
6. 1855: Cavour allied Sardinia with France and Britain in the Crimean War.
1856: Participated in the peace conference ending the Crimean War.
NAPOLEON III AND AUSTRIA:
1. Cavour viewed Austria domination in Northern Italy as the greatest obstacle to unity.
2. Cavour proposed an alliance with France against Austria.
a. France: Napoleon III believed that France could dominate a weak confederation of Italian states with the removal of Austria.
b. Sardinia: believed that the removal of Austria would enable Sardinia to form a strong alliance of Italian states against both Austria and France.
c. July 1858: Secret Agreement with Napoleon III
1. If Austria declared war on Sardinia, France would help drive out the Austrians from Venetia and Lombardy.
2. France would receive Nice and Savoy for this assistance.
3. 1859: Cavour began to mobilize the Sardinian Army.
a. Austria demanded that Sardinia's military buildup be halted in three days.
b. Cavour rejected Austria's demand and Austria declared war.
4. The Austro - Sardinian War:
a. Combined Sardinian and French forces drove the Austrians out of Lombardy and then moved into Venetia.
b. Tuscany, Modena, and Parma overthrew their Austrian rulers and asked to be annexed by Sardinia.
c. Napoleon was opposed to this move fearing a strong unified Italy.
d. In 1859 after three months of fighting, Napoleon III signed a secret armistice with Austria.
1. Sardinia would receive Lombardy.
2. Austria would retain Venetia.
3. Hapsburg rulers would be restored to Tuscany, Modena, and Parma.
4. Napoleon III still demanded Nice and Savoy.
5. Victor Emmanuel II agreed to the French terms fearing he might also lose Lombardy.
6. Further Rebellion in Italy:
a. Restored Hapsburg rulers were once again overthrown in Tuscany, Modena, and Parma.
b. Romagna, a southern province in the papal states, revolted.
c. All four states held a plebiscite to be annexed by Sardinia.
7. 1860: Agreement with France
a. France was to keep Nice and Savoy without opposition from Sardinia.
b. Tuscany, Modena, Parma, and Romagna were to be annexed by Sardinia.
SOUTHERN ITALY: GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI (1807 - 1882)
1. Italy in 1860:
a. Northern Italy was largely united under the Kingdom of Sardinia.
b. Papal States in Central Italy.
c. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the South.
2. Francis II, a Bourbon King, ruled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and now became the target of Italian Nationalists.
a. Joined Mazinni's Young Italy and was forced to flee Italy in 1834.
b. Lived in Latin America for several years.
c. 1848: he returned to Italy and fought in the revolution.
d. Fled Italy again living in the United States until his return in 1854.
4. Financial assistance from Cavour:
a. Garibaldi recruited an army of 1100 men (The Red Shirts).
b. May 1860: Garibaldi invaded the island of Sicily.
c. He crossed to the mainland and seized Naples forcing Francis II north to the border of the Papal States.
d. Garibaldi's Plan: to march north and capture Rome and then Venetia.
5. Cavour's Fear:
a. France and Austria might intervene into the conflict.
b. Garibaldi might attempt to establish a republic.
6. Cavour sent an army south to stop Garibaldi's Advance.
a. Most of the Papal States were annexed by Sardinia.
b. Rome was left under the control of the Pope.
7. Fall of 1860:
a. Garibaldi and Cavour met in Naples.
b. Cavour persuaded Garibaldi to agree to the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
c. Purpose: to achieve unification and avoid further fighting.
1. Elections were held in 1860:
a. Only Venetia and Rome were not included in the election.
b. The Italian People voted for national unity under the King of Sardinia.
2. February 1861:
a. A representative Parliament met in the city of Turin.
b. Confirmed Victor Emmanuel II as the King of Italy.
c. Cavour died four months later.
3. Venetia was still under Austrian control and the Western part of the Papal States around Rome were under the Pope.
4. Napoleon III sent troops to Rome to prevent the Italian from taking Rome.
5. 1866: Italy received Venetia for allying itself with Prussia in the Seven Weeks' War against Austria.
6. 1870: Napoleon III was forced to recall his troops from Rome.
a. Italians entered the city.
b. Citizens of Rome voted for union with italy and Rome became the capital.
7. The Papacy: refused to give up its claims to the Papal States --this conflict went on with the Italian government until 1929.
PROBLEMS AFTER UNIFICATION:
1. Constitutional Monarchy: modeled after the British Parliamentary system of government.
a. Voting was limited to less than 2% of the population.
b. Multiple Political Parties made effective government difficult.
* lack of a majority party in parliament.
2. Economic Rivalry: leading to sectional tensions.
a. Northern Italy: Industrial (factory system).
b. Southern Italy: Agriculture
3. Sicily: local government
a. A secret society formed known as the Camorra or Mafia.
b. Became a state within a state - the Italian Central government was powerless to control it.
4. Militarism (Army and Navy Buildup):
a. Achieved by heavily taxing the people.
b. 1890's - led to peasant uprisings.
5. Colonial Expansion:
a. Colonial ventures in Africa.
b. War with the Ottoman Empire in 1911 over (Tripoli) Libya.
c. Very costly and brought little to Italy.
German States: The Holy Roman Empire
1. Charlemagne: crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire - 800 A.D.
a. Germany after the breakup of Charlemagne's empire became a group of practically independent states with an elected king.
b. Several of charlemagne's descendants held the title of emperor.
* Later it went into to disuse with no one even holding the title within Germany.
2. 936: Otto I was elected King of Germany by the great feudal lords of Germany.
a. He took territory in Northern Italy.
b. He helped Pope John XII in a struggle with Roman nobles.
c. On February 2, 962: Otto I was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
3. End of the Holy Roman Empire:
a. August 6, 1806: Francis II because of pressure from Napoleon I dissolved the empire and resigned the imperial title.
b. Eight and half centuries had not been able to achieve a unified state for the German People.
4. Process of Decline:
a. Imperial Decree of 1356:
1. Placed the election of the emperor into the hands of seven electors.
2. Recognized the decentralization of the government of the Holy Roman Empire.
b. Treaty of Westphalia - 1648: it granted independence of German rulers from the Holy Roman Empire.
c. Political divisions in 1648 were estimated at 1800. Some were tiny territories of no more than 300 people and independent cities.
d. German rulers were more concerned with their own states than with Germany as a whole.
e. Leadership was eventually to come from Prussia for German Unification.
THE NAPOLEONIC ERA: PRUSSIA
1. Frederick Wilhelm II: 1786 - 1797
a. Helped to form the First Coalition against the Revolutionary Government of France.
b. Defeated in 1795 and forced to give up claims to territories west of the Rhine River.
2. Frederick Wilhelm III: 1797 - 1840
a. 1805: Joined the Third Coalition against Napoleon.
b. Defeated and peace terms almost wiped Prussia out of existence.
3. Napoleon's Domination of Prussia: 1806 - 1812
a. Seized Prussian land was given to allies and relatives of Napoleon's (ie. the Grand Duchy of Warsaw).
b. Prussia had to pay a large indemnity and support an army of occupation.
4. Prussians demanded reform.
a. Abolition of serfdom.
b. Removal of medieval class distinctions that still existed.
c. Improvement of education and the system of levying and collecting taxes.
5. Traditional Prussia Strength: the Army
a. Napoleon had restricted the sized of the Prussian Army.
b. Development of a Reserve Army:
1. All men drafted and required to serve short terms of service.
2. Received intensive military training.
3. Released and placed on reserve providing a large number of men trained to be called up when needed.
4. Prussia was still able to maintain the restrictions placed on them by France.
6. Napoleon's Territorial Changes:
a. Austrian and Prussian rivalry was strongest among the German states.
b. Austrian Hapsburgs had been emperors of the Holy Roman Empire since the 15th Century.
1. Abolished the Holy Roman Empire.
2. Creation of the Confederation of the Rhine.
3. Result: easier for Prussia to influence other German States.
7. German Nationalism increased in reaction to Napoleon.
a. It (nationalism) favored Prussia over Austria.
b. In Austria, Germans ruled but were a minority governing many different national groups.
c. Most of these national groups wanted independence from Austria.
ie. Hungarians, Rumanians, Italians, and Slavs.
8. Prussia played a major role in the defeat of Napoleon.
a. Prussian armies fought at both the Battle of Nations and at Waterloo.
b. Represented at the Congress of Vienna and became a member of the Quadruple Alliance.
OBSTACLES TO UNIFICATION
1. Metternich System: a unified Germany would disrupt the status quo and balance of power in Europe.
2. Austria: the German Confederation would help to maintain Austrian domination over the other German states.
3. France: did not want a strong unified nation that might be a threat to it.
4. Religious Differences:
a. Northern Germany: Protestant (Lutheran)
b. Southern Germany: Roman Catholic
5. Many German rulers feared the loss of power in their own states (sectionalism).
6. Economic Differences: industrial states of the west and agricultural states of the east (conflicting interests).
1. Tariffs from on German state to another hindered trade.
a. Increased prices reducing the amount that was sold.
b. Tariffs were put on goods shipped from one Prussian possession to another.
2. Junkers: aristocratic landowners in Prussia.
a. Wanted to sell their farm products more widely through Prussia and Germany.
b. 1818: persuaded the Prussian king to abolish all tariffs within his territories.
c. 1819: The Zollverein
1. Prussia made treaties with other German states setting up a customs (or trade) union.
2. By 1844: it included almost all German states except Austria.
a. Financial Benefit: it lowered and made prices more uniform.
b. Encouraged the spread of the Industrial Revolution.
c. Uniform systems of weights, measures, and currency were adopted.
d. Businessmen became strong advocates for Unification.
4. Prussia: increasingly became the economic and political leader.
5. Austria: was considered to be outside "the real Germany".
THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848:
1. The Carlsbad Decrees of 1819:
a. Successful against university students and professors.
b. Underground Movement: liberals forced to work in secret for constitutional and democratic reforms.
2. The French Revolution of 1848 caused political agitation among the German states.
3. An elected National Assembly met at Frankfort in May 1848.
a. Wanted a unified state with political and social reform.
b. Had little political power of its own and less direct support from the majority of the German People.
c. Necessary: first to triumph in a principal German State.
4. Frederick Wilhelm IV was forced to agree to a constitution and to convene a Prussian Parliament.
a. June Riots in Paris which allowed Louis Napoleon to assume autocratic powers was a death blow to German liberalism.
b. November 9th: Frederick Wilhelm adjourned the Prussian Assembly and moved it to Brandenburg.
c. December 5th: he dissolved the assembly.
d. He (Frederick Wilhelm IV) decreed a Moderate Constitution.
5. The Frankfort Assembly: after Nine Months
a. It had not provided for any real economic and social reform.
b. Finally it provided a constitution setting up a national Parliament under an emperor.
c. March 1849: the crown was offered to Frederick Wilhelm IV who turned it down.
d. By 1850: conditions were as they had been before 1848 with a complete failure of the Liberal Movement.
BISMARCK AND PRUSSIAN STRENGTH:
1. Wilhelm I: became the king of Prussia in 1861.
2. He was faced with liberal opposition in the Prussian Parliament.
3. September 1862: Wilhelm I appointed Otto von Bismarck as his Prime Minister of the cabinet.
a. Bismarck believed Prussia was destined to lead Germany to unification.
b. He directed Prussian foreign policy.
c. Prussian Power had to be based in a strong army.
d. He believed war with Austria and France was inevitable.
4. Army Reform was necessary to strengthen Prussia:
a. Helmut von Moltke and Albrecht von Roon were to direct this program of Reform.
b. The Prussian Parliament refused to levy increased taxes for military expansion.
c. Bismarck dismissed Parliament and collected the taxes without Parliamentary authority.
d. Plan: to stop criticism with military victories.
5. Two Major Obstacles:
a. Destroy Austria's position of leadership in the German Confederation.
b. Destroy Austria's influence over the Southern German States considered to be major opponents to Prussian leadership.
THE DANISH WAR:
1. The Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were on the borders between Denmark and Germany.
a. Holstein had been a part of the German Confederation since 1815 -- entirely German.
b. Schleswig was a mixture of both Germans and Danes.
c. Ruled by the Danish king under a constitution that provided they were separate from Denmark.
2. 1863: Christian IX became King of Denmark.
a. He issued a new constitution that would annex Schleswig as part of Denmark.
b. Both Prussia and Austria demanded that the new constitution be revoked.
c. Denmark refused and Prussia and Austria jointly declared war.
3. 1864: after three months of fighting Denmark had been defeated by the forces of Prussia and Austria.
4. Peace Treaty:
a. The two Duchies were given to Prussia and Austria jointly.
b. Austria demanded that they be formed into a single state and become a part of the German Confederation.
c. Prussia opposed this settlement.
d. Prussia: was given jurisdiction over Schleswig.
Austria: was given jurisdiction over Holstein.
THE SEVEN WEEKS' WAR:
1. Groundwork for war with Austria.
a. Need: to keep Russia and France out of any possible conflict with Austria.
b. 1863: won the support of Czar Alexander II with promises to help put down a revolt of the Poles.
c. 1865: gained the neutrality of Napoleon III.
1. France demanded help in gaining land along the Rhine in the Southern German States.
2. Bismarck persuaded Napoleon III to put these demands in writing. (promises of help were only oral not written)
d. April 1866: formed a short term alliance with Italy.
1. Military assistance if war broke out within three months.
2. Italy would receive the Austrian province of Venetia in Northern Italy.
2. Bismarck forced Austria to declare war on Prussia over conflicts in Schleswig and Holstein.
a. Austria appeared the aggressor.
b. War broke out in mid 1866.
c. Austria had the German states of Bavaria, Saxony, and Hanover allied to it.
3. Prussia surprised all of Europe in defeating Austria in seven weeks.
4. July 3, 1866: The Treaty of Prague
a. The German Confederation was dissolved.
b. Holstein was given to Prussia.
c. Venetia went to Italy.
d. No territory seized or war indemnities on the Southern German State that had aided Austria.
e. Northern Germany:
1. The Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, the state of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, and Nassau, and the free city of Frankfort were annexed by Prussia.
2. The remaining states north of the Main River were allowed to remain independent.
5. 1867: The Northern German Confederation
a. All states north of the Main River were united into this Confederation.
b. Each state had the right of self government, but the King of Prussia was the hereditary president of the Confederation.
c. Prussia dominated the legislature of the Confederation with the largest number of representatives.
6. Only three states in the south: Bavaria, Baden, and Wurttenberg remained outside of the Confederation. Southern part Hesse-Darmstaat
a. Austrian and Catholic influence was still strong.
b. A foreign threat could only persuade them to unite.
THE FRANCO PRUSSIAN WAR:
1. Napoleon III had continued to oppose German unification.
a. A war with France was necessary to achieve unification in Bismarck's view.
b. Napoleon III's foreign policy had antagonized most of Europe, so the likelihood of an ally was remote.
2. 1868: Spanish Revolution
a. Queen Isabella II was driven from the throne.
b. 1870: The Spanish throne was offered to Prince Leopold, cousin of Wilhelm I of Prussia.
c. French Opposition: same ruling family on two borders.
d. Leopold refused the off, but Bismarck persuaded Spain to renew their offer.
3. The Ems Dispatch
a. July 13, 1870: a meeting at Ems between Wilhelm I and the French ambassador.
b. The French demanded that candidacy to the Spanish throne never be revived again.
c. Wilhelm I refused to answer this demand and left Ems.
d. A telegraph message was sent to Bismarck describing the meeting.
The Ems Dispatch: July 14th - it was released and altered by Bismarck to the press making it appear that the French ambassador had been offended.
4. July 19, 1870: The French legislature declared war on Prussia by a vote of 246 to 10.
5. Napoleon III went to the Front to take personal command of the army.
a. The French were defeated at the Battle of Sedan.
b. Napoleon III was captured by the Germans.
c. The French legislature proclaimed the fall of the Second French Empire and the establishment of the Third Republic.
6. Paris was captured in January 1871 and the war was over.
7. Treaty of Frankfort:
a. The province of Alsace and the eastern part of Lorraine were given to Prussia.
* Lorraine - a rich iron producing area.
b. France had to pay a war idemnity of Five Billion Francs (almost $ 1 billion).
c. An army of occupation in Northern France until the indemnity was paid.
8. The French government was able to borrow money to pay the indemnity.
Result : German troops left France in September 1873.
FORMATION OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE:
1. Southern German states had allied themselves to Prussia during the Franco Prussian War.
a. Bismarck revealed the 1865 document in which Napoleon III had demanded territory of theirs.
b. This convinced the southern states that France was more of a threat than Prussia.
2. January 18, 1871
a. Representatives of the allied states met at the palace of Versailles.
b. They proclaimed the formation of the German Empire.
c. It included all the German states except Austria.
d. The capital was to be Berlin, the capital of Prussia.
e. The emperor (Kaiser) was to be Wilhelm I, King of Prussia.
3. Constitution: a federal union of twenty-five German states.
a. Local Government:
1. Each would have their own ruler.
2. Control over domestic matters: ie. public health, education, law enforcement, and local taxation.
b. Imperial Government:
1. Control over national defense, foreign affairs, tariffs, and commercial matters.
2. The Kaiser:
a. Would appoint the Chancellor - responsible only to the Kaiser.
b. Commanded the army and navy and controlled foreign affairs.
c. Could declare a defensive war on his own authority.
d. Could declare an offensive war with the consent of the upper house of the legislature.
c. Legislature: Two Houses
1. Bundesrat: federal council (Upper House)
a. 58 members appointed by the emperor and rulers of the various states.
b. The Kaiser appointed 17 members -- only 14 members needed to block any change to the constitution.
2. Reichstag: Legislative Assembly
a. 400 members elected by universal manhood suffrage.
b. Bundesrat drew up legislation to be considered by the Reichstag.
c. The Bundesrat acting with the Kaiser could dismiss the Reichstag.
4. The constitution favored Prussia in German Affairs.
a. The Prussian King was the Kaiser of Germany.
b. Prussia had the largest number of delegates in the Bundesrat.
c. As the most populous state, Prussia had the largest number of delegates in the Reichstag.
OPPOSITION TO BISMARCK:
1. Southern States especially Bavaria resented Imperial interference (viewed it as Prussian interference).
2. Conflict with the Roman Catholic Church - majority in the southern states.
3. 1864: Pope Pius IX issued the "Syllabus of Errors".
* He denounced liberalism, religious toleration, and secular education.
4. 1870: A Vatican Council declared the pope was infallible (incapable of error) in matters of faith and morals.
5. Bismarck considered Catholic interference in the southern states as a threat to the German Empire.
6. 1872: diplomatic relations between the Vatican and Germany were broken off.
7. Kulturkampf (War of Civilization):
a. Strict control of Catholic clergy and schools.
b. All Jesuits were expelled from Germany.
c. Clergy had to be German and educated in German schools.
8. A Catholic Party was formed to oppose this program --- joined by many non-catholic liberals.
9. By 1880, the Kulturkampf was at a practical end.
a. 1878: a more moderate Pope Leo XIII had succeeded Pius IX.
b. Bismarck decided he had overestimated the threat of the Catholic Church.
c. Socialism was viewed as the real domestic threat to Germany.
10. By 1887, anti-Catholic legislation had been repealed; and diplomatic relations with the Vatican had been restored.
1. Unification had encouraged increased industrial development.
2. Victory Over France:
a. Germany gained the rich iron mines of Lorraine.
b. Billion Dollars in gold for capital investment (ie. Treaty of Frankfort).
3. Government owned and operated transportation and also promoted industrial development.
4. Ruhr Valley: north of Lorraine, steel industry developed because of the availability of iron and coal.
5. Role of Government:
a. Money and banking laws became uniform throughout the empire.
b. Communication Systems (telegraph and postal services) were centralized.
c. High Tariff Policy: protected German Industry from foreign competition.
d. Encouraged the development of Cartels.
1. Fixed prices.
2. Limited productions. * with in a single industry.
3. Divided markets.
(Purpose: to try to eliminate competition through monopoly.)
6. By 1900: Germany was an Industrial rival of Britain and the United States in industrial production.
7. Agricultural production did not decline by applying new scientific developments.
1. Industrialization and the Factory System increased urban population.
2. Opposition to Cartels, a policy favored by Capitalists.
a. Lowered wages for workers.
b. Higher prices for consumers.
3. Many believed the government should pass laws to benefit workers and regulate industry.
4. 1869: Social Democratic Workingman's Party was formed.
a. Advocated government ownership of major industries.
b. 1871: elected two members to the Reichstag.
c. 1877: representation had increased to 12 in the Reichstag.
5. Socialists were powerless since the Reichstag could only consider measurers proposed by the Bundesrat.
6. Reichstag: a public forum to present the socialist view point and grievances.
ANTI SOCIALIST CAMPAIGN:
1. 1877: Social Democrats received half a million votes.
2. 1878: There were two attempts to assassinate the Kaiser.
a. Bismarck accused the Social Democrats of plotting the assassination of the Kaiser.
b. The Kaiser and Bundesrat dissolved the Reichstag and called for new elections.
c. Social Democrat representation was not changed in the Reichstag.
3. Anti-Socialist Legislation:
a. Socialist ideas could not be spread trough newspapers, books, or pamphlets.
b. Socialists were prohibited from holding public meetings.
c. Socialists continued their efforts in secret.
4. 1884: Social Democrat strength had increased to 24 in the Reichstag.
5. Program of Reform:
a. Proposed by Bismarck since repression had failed.
b. Insurance against sickness and accident.
c. Laws: limited hours and provided for certain holidays for workers.
d. Social Security: payments to disabled workers and those too old to work.
6. Result: Social Democrats were no longer a political force or threat in Germany.
BISMARCK'S FOREIGN POLICY:
1. Based primarily on armed strength.
2. The army continued to increase in size.
a. Use of conscription and reserves throughout Germany.
b. Improved modern weapons and equipment.
c. Professional military men held important positions in non-military branches of government.
3. Until 1890: Germany sought peace rather than war.
4. Fear of a two front war.
a. Attempted to keep France isolated from the rest of Europe.
b. Worked to maintain friendship between the Hohenzollerns of Germany and the Romanovs of Russia.
c. Austria was considered to be a natural ally as another German speaking nation.
d. 1866: Prussia had helped Italy gain Venetia (ie. The Seven Weeks' War).
5. 1882: Bismarck formed the Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy.
Defensive: each nation promised to come to the assistance of the other if they were attacked.
1. Kaiser Wilhelm I died in 1888 at the age of 91.
2. Frederick III:
a. At the age of 57, he succeeded his father.
b. He had cancer of the throat - he was Kaiser for only 91 days.
3. 1888: Frederick III was succeeded by his 29 year old son, Wilhelm II.
4. Bismarck was more concerned with making Germany the strongest nation in Europe and keeping France isolated.
5. Bismarck was opposed to colonial expansion -- it could bring Germany into conflict with other European nations -- possibly create an ally for France.
6. Wilhelm II:
a. Believed Bismarck was too powerful.
b. By opposing Colonial Expansion, he believed Bismarck was failing to promote the interests of Germany.
c. In 1890, Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign.
7. The Kaiser then began to build up Germany's navy bringing Germany into conflict with Britain.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE AND CENTRAL EUROPE:
1. The Revolution of 1848:
a. Violent uprising of students and workers in Vienna on March 13th.
b. Metternich was forced to resign and flee the country.
c. The Austrian Emperor Ferdinand was forced to abdicate in favor of his 18 year old son Franz Josef I.
2. Hungary 1848:
a. One of the largest parts of the Austrian Empire.
b. Magyars were the largest ethnic group with their own language and culture.
c. Nationalistic Movement to make the Magyars dominant in Hungary and to free Hungary from Austrian domination.
d. Louis Kossuth led a revolt in 1848 against the Austrians in Hungary.
3. Russian Intervention:
a. 1849: Louis Kossuth was elected "governor-president" of the Hungarian Diet.
b. A few months later the Hungarian revolutionaries were defeated by a combined Austrian and Russian Army.
c. Nicholas I: had offered Russian aid fearing the revolution might spread to Russian Poland.
THE DUAL MONARCHY:
1. 1849-1866: Austria was able to control liberalism and nationalism.
2. 1866: Austria's defeat in the Seven Weeks' War led to Hungarian demands for independence.
3. 1867: Ausgleich or compromise.
a. Transformed the Austrian Empire into the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
b. Common Monarch: Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
c. Austria and Hungary each had its own government and were independent in local matters.
d. Both were governed jointly over issues of foreign policy, national defense and finance.
a. Hungary was chiefly agricultural while Austria was industrial.
1. Each could provide markets and products for the other.
2. Austria wanted high protective tariffs while Hungary wanted lower tariffs and freer trade.
b. National Groups: Czechs, Serbs, Croats, Rumanians, and Italians in both Austria and Hungary who had not benefited from the Dual Monarchy.
c. Different Languages --- Army:
1. Who should command and what language should be spoken.
2. Common Army: German, Magyar, and various slavic nationalities.
5. The Seven Weeks' War: 1866
a. Austria had lost its position of influence and power both in Germany and Italy.
b. The Dual Monarchy to gain influence and territory began to expand into the Balkan Peninsula.
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE:
1. The Seventeenth Century:
a. Vienna was almost captured in 1683.
b. Empire: North Africa, western Asia, southern Russia, Balkan Peninsula and Hungary.
2. By 1700, Austria had recaptured Hungary from the Ottoman Empire.
3. Discontent among Subject Nationalities.
a. Absolute Government:
1. Sultan: absolute ruler with control over government and religion.
2. Vizier: (chief minister) second only to the sultan.
3. Pasha: provincial governor.
1. Farmed Taxation: much of the taxes were kept in the hands of the Pasha.
2. Bribery: used to obtain important governmental positions.
3. By the 19th Century: many Pashas had become almost independent rulers.
c. Economic Weakness:
1. Tax system discouraged both agricultural and industrial development.
2. Refusal of the government to bring about economic and military reform.
3. Both Jews and Christians suffered from economic and religious persecution.
d. Cruelty: severe measurers used to suppress rebellions.
4. Discontent in the Balkans:
a. 19th Century: rise of nationalism (ie. Serbs, Bulgarians, Rumanians, and Greeks).
b. Revolts of the 1820's:
1. Greek Independence recognized.
2. Serbs and Rumanians given some rights of self government.
c. Pan Slavism: union of all slavic people in the Balkans under Russian leadership.
1. The Russians were slavic as well as the Serbs and Bulgarians.
2. The Russians were Orthodox Christians as well as many in the Balkans.
3. Actual Purpose: to gain control of the water route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean.
d. British Opposition:
1. Russians might challenge the sea power of Britain in the Mediterranean.
2. Britain supported the Ottoman Empire to prevent Russian domination of the region.
THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR AND THE CONGRESS OF BERLIN:
1. 1875: revolts broke out in several provinces in the Balkans.
2. 1877: Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
3. 1878: The Turks were easily defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of San Stefano.
a. Independence was granted to Rumania, Montenegro, and Serbia.
b. Created an enlarged Bulgaria which Russian troops were to occupy.
c. This gave Russia a seaport on the Aegean Sea (ie. Bulgaria).
4. Britain and Austria-Hungary demanded an International Conference for a Balkan Settlement.
* Russia agreed after being threatened with war.
5. Congress of Berlin: 1878
a. Serbia, Montenegro, and Rumania were to be independent.
b. Bulgaria was reduced in size and given the right of self-government within the Ottoman Empire.
c. Austria Hungary was to govern Bosnia and Herzegovina but could not annex them.
d. Britain was given the right to occupy and administer the island of Cyprus.
e. Russia: received some minor Balkan territory, but was denied access to the Mediterranean.
6. Developments after the Congress of Berlin:
a. 1882: Turkey recognized British domination of Egypt.
b. 1908: Bulgaria became independent.
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina violating the Congress of Berlin.
c. 1913: Greece annexed the island of Crete.
THE BALKAN WARS:
1. The Balkan League:
a. Included Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro.
b. Purpose: to take and divide among themselves the remaining Balkan territory of the Ottoman Empire.
2. The First Balkan War: 1912
a. The League declared war on the Ottoman Empire and easily defeated the Turks.
b. Serbia gained a seaport on the Adriatic Sea.
c. Albania became independent.
d. Bulgaria gained considerable territory in the Central Balkans along the Aegean Sea.
3. The Second Balkan War: 1913
a. Many League members were resentful over territorial settlements of 1912.
b. Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, Rumania and the Ottoman Empire declared war on Bulgaria.
c. Bulgaria was easily defeated by this alliance.
d. The Ottoman Empire: In Europe, control of Constantinople and a small region around it. (retained control of the water route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean).
e. Serbia and Greece: received considerable territory from Bulgaria.
f. Austria-Hungary: forced Serbia to give their Adriatic sea-port to Albania.
RUSSIA - MID 19TH CENTURY:
1. Largest territory and population of any European nation.
2. The Industrial Revolution had not yet had the impact in Russia as it had in Western Europe.
3. Extensive resources which were under developed.
4. Russia was almost land locked.
a. Many ports were frozen most of the year.
b. Exits from some ports were controlled by other nations.
c. Efforts to gain access to the Mediterranean led to conflicts with the Ottoman Empire.
5. The Russian Empire also included many national and racial groups.
a. Great Russians: in central and northern Russia - over 50%.
b. Urkranians or Little Russians: in southern Russia about 20%.
c. White Russians: in western Russia almost 5%.
d. About 100 other nationalities about 25%.
RUSSIAN DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY:
1. Domestic Policies aimed at maintaining absolutism and preventing liberal reform.
2. Western Influence:
a. Began under Peter the Great.
b. Improved communication and transportation made this influence greater.
c. Nationalistic ideals appealed to national minorities.
3. Control of Liberalism:
a. Strict censorship of the press and speech.
b. Use of a secret police: The Third Section
c. "Russification" - non Russian peoples were forced to use the Russian language, accept the Orthodox Church, and adopt Russian customs and culture.
4. Foreign Policy:
a. Pan Slavism in the Balkans.
b. Expansion eastward into Asia and southward into the Ottoman Empire.
ALEXANDER II AND REFORM:
1. Alexander II became czar in 1855.
a. Conservative and autocratic views.
b. Easily influenced by public opinion.
2. There were liberal demands for the abolishment of serfdom.
a. It was not firmly established in Russia until it had almost disappeared in Western Europe.
b. Mid 19th Century: millions of peasants were bound to the land.
c. They could not leave the land unless ordered by the government or by permission of nobles who owned the land.
4. Liberal Movement:
a. Received support from a new group of middle class factory owners (though small in number).
b. Motivated by a need of workers for their factories.
5. 1861: Alexander II issued an edict of Emancipation.
a. Freed all serfs.
b. Provided that the government would buy part of the land and sell small tracts of land to the peasants (mir system).
6. Land sold at high prices.
a. Unable to make payments and pay taxes -- they were forced to rent land from the nobles.
b. Conditions of former serfs had not really improved.
c. Many were forced to move to the cities providing a source of cheap labor.
7. 1864: Provinces in European Russia
a. Assembly of Nobles and delegates elected by townsmen and peasants.
b. Levied local taxes and controlled public health, schools, welfare and some public works.
8. Court System:
a. Civil and criminal cases were tried by juries in open court (had been tried in secret by governmental officials).
b. Political Cases: still tried in secret.
a. Reactionaries: maintained reforms were endangering the position of the czar and the nobles.
b. Liberals and Radicals: maintained that Alexander II had not gone far enough -- need for further reform.
RADICALS AND REACTION:
1. Nihilists: 1860's
a. Abolish the whole political and social structure of Russia.
b. Build a new Russia based on reason with nothing that depended on faith.
a. Lived among the peasants as teachers and doctors.
b. Advocated governmental seizure of land to be divided among the peasants.
3. The People's Will:
a. A radical terrorist movement.
b. Use of bombings and assassination to force the government to grant reforms.
4. Repressive Measures were introduced by Alexander II to control radicals -- led to his own assassination in 1881.
5. Reaction: Alexander III (1881-1894)
a. Censorship, control of the church and education, use of spies and informers, imprisonment and exile.
Purpose: destruction of liberalism in Russia.
b. Russification: national minorities suffered under this program.
* "One Czar, One Church, One Language
c. Persecution of Jews:
1. Forbidden to own land.
2. Little access to educational institutions.
3. Required to live in restricted districts (ghettoes).
4. Pogroms: murdered in massacres after the death of Alexander II -- many Jews fled to the U.S. at this time.
6. Social Democratic Labor Party:
a. Moderate socialist organization founded in 1898.
b. Wanted the right to form unions and strike.
c. Became more radical because of government policies.
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905:
1. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905):
a. Russia was defeated by this small Far Eastern Nation.
b. Made the corruption and inefficiency of the Russian government apparent.
2. Strikes, demonstrations, and riots broke out (a call for reform).
3. Bloody Sunday: January 22, 1905 - Father Gapon
a. A large group of workers with a petition of reforms marched on the Czar's winter palace.
b. Nervous soldiers fired on the crowd killing many of them.
4. Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto.
a. Guarantee of individual liberties with the election of a parliament, Duma.
b. No law would be valid without the approval of the Duma.
c. Strikes and civil unrest ended.
5. Problems with the Duma:
a. Demands that the czar's ministers be more responsible to the Duma.
b. Two sessions of the Duma were dismissed by the Czar.
c. Suffrage restricted to only large landowners making the Duma very conservative.
6. Failure of the Revolution of 1905:
a. The army remained loyal to the czar.
b. Moderates were frightened by Radical demands and withdrew their support.
c. France lent money to support the Russian government.