1. Shared Experiences

2. Race

3. Language

4. Religion

5. Customs (culture)

6. Economic Interests


Liberalism: Securing Individual Freedom

1. Freedom of thought, religion, and economic opportunity.

2. Opposed to Absolute Rulers.

3. Constitutions ---------------------- to limit governmental authority and protect civil rights.

4. Moderates from the Middle Class:

a. They did not believe in political participation by all citizens.

b. Voting: should be limited to men of property and education.

The Congress of Vienna: an international conference which convened in September of 1814 to restore peace and order to Europe.

1. 700 diplomats attended.

2. Every European Power was represented except the Ottoman Empire.

The Big Four: Dominated and influenced the decisions of the Congress.

1. Britain - Lord Castlereagh and (the Duke of Wellington until Napoleon returned to France in 1815).

2. Austria - Prince Metternich

3. Russia - Alexander I

4. Prussia - Frederick Wilhelm III


5. France (not part of the big four but important role at the Congress) - Charles Talleyrand

France - her Position was Difficult and Awkward at the Congress.

1. The French Revolution had been an attack on absolutism.

2. France had been at war with Europe for almost 25 years.

3. Talleyrand - had to try to ensure that France was not punished too severely.

a. Feared: France would be partitioned and divided as Poland had been.

b. Advocated the Principle of Legitimacy - all former rulers should be restored to their thrones.

Territorial Settlements

1. The Grand Duchy of Warsaw:

a. Made up from Prussia's Polish territory and had been given to the King of Saxony by Napoleon.

b. Russia demanded all of this territory (used by Napoleon to invade Russia).

c. Prussia would agree if the King of Saxony was deposed and Saxony was given to Prussia.

d. Opposed by Britain and Austria:

1.) Britain: did not want Russia to become too powerful.

2.) Austria: feared Prussia would become too powerful in German affairs.

e. Compromise: proposed by Talleyrand.

1.) Prussia received part of Saxony and a small portion of the Duchy.

2.) Russia received the rest of the disputed territory.

2. The Dutch Netherlands received the Austrian Netherlands creating the nation of the Netherlands.

3. Austria:

a. Northern Italian states of Venetia and Lombardy.

b. Hapsburg rulers were put on the thrones of the Northern Italian states of Parma, Modena, and Tuscany.

4. Russia had also received Finland as a result of a war with Sweden.

5. Compensation to Sweden:

a. Received Norway, formerly a Danish Possession.

b. Punishment: Denmark had cooperated with Napoleon.

6. Prussia: also received land along the lower Rhine River.

7. Britain:

a. Received no territory in Europe.

b. Part of the French West Indies.

c. Malta in the Mediterranean.

d. The island of Ceylon. (modern Sri Lanka)

e. The Cape Colony in Africa from the Dutch.

f. British Guiana in South America.

8. Purpose of European Territorial Changes: to surround France with strong states to prevent France from threatening the peace of Europe.

9. France:

a. Pay a War Indemnity of 500 million francs.

b. An army of occupation for five years; France was to pay for the cost of maintaining it.

c. The return of all stolen art works.

d. Reduced to the borders of 1792.

Results of the Congress

1. Reaction: a return to the conditions of an earlier period.

Europe of 1815: restoration of conditions that existed before the disruption of the French Revolution.

2. Spain, Naples, and some states in Northern Italy:

a. Restored rulers abolished constitutions adopted during the Napoleonic Era.

b. Absolutism was restored.

3. Switzerland:

a. Only nation allowed to keep a constitutional republican form of government.

b. Promise: to remain neutral and this neutrality was guaranteed by European Powers.

4. Nationalism Ignored:

a. Italy: many states were placed under foreign rule.

b. Italy remained a partitioned nation.

c. No self government for National groups living in the Austrian Empire.

d. German States:

1.) Confederation of the Rhine had been composed of 16 states.

2.) The German Confederation was created with 39 members including Prussia --- dominated by Austria. The Diet -- always presided over by an Austrian delegate.


1. Quadruple Alliance: November 1815

a. Continuation of the former coalition against Napoleon.

b. Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia.

c. Purpose: to ensure that the terms of the Congress were carried out.

d. Periodic Meetings: to discuss matters of concern to the major powers and to form consensus for action.

2. Holy Alliance:

a. Proposed by Alexander I: each ruler should rule by Christian principles with a sense of duty toward their subjects.

b. Signed by all European Rulers except the King of England, the Turkish Sultan, and the Pope.

c. British Position: too idealistic.

3. Concert of Europe:

a. Agreement of all nations to maintain the status quo established by the Congress of Vienna.

b. First Meeting: 1818

1.) France was admitted (having fulfilled peace terms).

2.) Quintuple Alliance.

c. It lasted until 1848.

4. Ignored (opposed) Nationalistic and Liberal Movements.

5. Peace and Order: no major European War until 1848.


1. Period: Thirty Years after the Congress of Vienna is sometimes called the

"Age of Metternich".

2. Reactionary ---- believed in Absolute Monarchies as a means to preserve peace and prevent revolution.

3. Opposed to Constitutional Governments and ideas of liberalism.

4. Goal: to prevent war or revolution by preserving Absolutism.

a. Austria:

1.) Established a secret police.

2.) Liberals were imprisoned or forced into exile.

b. German States: because of Austrian domination, most German rulers were persuaded to adopt the same policies.

c. Northern Italy: Hapsburg rulers imposed the same policies.

d. France:

1.) Louis XVIII - had to be careful in domestic affairs.

2.) Willing to help suppress revolutions in other countries.

5. Concert of Europe:

a. Became an instrument (means) to suppress revolution and liberalism whenever they appeared.

b. Austria, Russia, Prussia agreed to act together against any revolutionary threat anywhere in Europe.

6. Opposition of Great Britain:

a. Opposed to interfering in countries where liberal movements were attempting to overthrow absolute rulers.

b. Britain had a limited monarchy and representative government. The British People sympathized with these liberal movements.

c. Commercial Nation -- it was not good business to interfere in the affairs of other nations.

d. 1822: George Canning became foreign minister, and took Britain out of the Quintuple Alliance.

7. 1819: The German Confederation

a. Unrest among German university students.

b. Meeting: larger states of the Confederation met at Carlsbad in Bohemia.

c. Carlsbad Decrees: adopted

1.) Reintroduced censorship of the press.

2.) Universities were brought under governmental control.

8. Spain:

a. Conservative opposition to the liberal Constitution of 1812. Conservative Strength: rural areas of Spain.

b. Ferdinand VII: restored to the Spanish throne in March 1814.

1.) Promised to honor the Constitution of 1812.

2.) Repressed liberal ideas --- suppressed opposition to Ferdinand.

c. Revolutionary Movement Arose:

1.) Dual Problem: bankruptcy at home and rebellion in Spain's Latin American colonies.

2.) Officers and soldiers joined a number of Spanish cities in rebellion.

3.) Result: Ferdinand's government collapsed.

d. Concert of Europe: Quintuple Alliance

1.) Met at Verona in October 1822.

2.) Allies agreed upon intervention in Spain.

3. George Canning refused to cooperate with their decision.

4. In 1823, French troops entered Spain and restored Ferdinand to power.

9. Russia:

a. Alexander I had come to the throne in 1801.

1.) Hope of reform of Russia's absolute government.

2.) Promised Polish liberals a constitution of their own.

3.) 1803: Alexander issued an edict providing for the emancipation of serfs by landowners who wished to do so.

4.) Continued to resist all moves toward a constitutional government in Russia. Also, advocated intervention in Spain.

b. Alexander died in December 1825:

1.) Left behind a series of repressive measures.

2.) There was also a disputed succession to the throne.

3.) An underground revolutionary movement had formed centered among army officers.

4.) The Revolutionaries were young noblemen who had become familiar with European philosophy and literature during the Napoleonic Wars.

c. The Revolutionaries agreed on Goals:

1.) There had to be an end of serfdom.

2.) The slowly rising middle class had to be given a more important role in government.

d. Czar Nicholas I (1825-1855)

1.) Decembrists: various military groups began to mutiny against Nicholas.

2.) No specific goals or widespread support for them.

3.) Nicholas easily and severely crushed the revolt.

e. Nicholas became one of the most repressive czars in Russian History.

1.) Used the secret police, the Third Section, to keep intellectuals and liberals under surveillance.

2.) Made it difficult for Russian students to go abroad and come in contact with what he considered were "dangerous ideas".

10. The Greek War for Independence: 1821-1829

a. A struggle between Moslems and Christians which aroused interest in Europe.

b. Greece had been a part of the Ottoman Empire since the 16th Century (300 years).

c. Lord Byron

1.) Saw it as a cultural crusade for the West.

2.) He died in Greece in 1824.

d. 1823: Britain recognized Greece as a belligerent state --- George Canning said that "it is impossible to treat a population of over one million as pirates".

e. July 6, 1827: Britain, France, and Russia

Treaty of London: all agreed to use force if necessary to compel the Turks to grant Greek Independence.

f. 1827: Battle of Navarino

1.) The government of Egypt was to send its navy against the Greeks.

2.) Bay of Navarino: southwest corner of Greece -- British, French, and Russian fleet helped the Greeks destroy the Egyptian fleet.

g. Treaty of Andrianople:

1.) The Ottoman Sultan was forced to recognize Greek Independence.

2.) Serbs and Rumanians in the northern Balkan Peninsula were given the right of self government.

h. Greek Independence was the first real failure of the Metternich System in Europe.

France: Overthrow of the Bourbons

1. 1814-1848: a series of unsuccessful attempts to establish some kind of political balance (consensus).

2. June 1814: Bourbons were restored in the person of Louis XVIII.

a. The Restoration coincided with the beginning of large scale industrialization in France.

b. Retained many reforms: 1789-1815

1.) Bank of France

2.) State supported schools

3.) Napoleonic Law Code

c. Accepted a new Constitution:

1.) Limited Monarchy

2.) Limited (qualified) right to vote.

3. Political Factions: Early 19th Century

a. Ultras: wanted a complete return to the Old Regime ignoring the last 25 years of French History.

b. Moderate Conservatives: accept reforms of the past 25 years and build a strong monarchy with it.

c. Liberals: wanted a constitutional monarchy, with real power based in the legislature (restricted suffrage).

d. Radicals: wanted the establishment of a Republic.

4. Charles X: 1824-1830

a. Believed in Divine Right and the Old Regime.

b. Anti-Liberal Legislation:

1.) Restrictions on the press.

2.) Payment to emigres for property seized during the Revolution.

3.) Unpopular program with increased taxation.

c. By 1830:

1.) Liberal opposition gained control of the legislature.

2.) Charles proclaimed the July Ordinances:

a.) Dissolved the legislature.

b.) Further limiting the right to vote - disfranchising even the Upper Middle Class.

d. "July Revolution"

1.) Temporary alliance of the working class and the bourgeoisie.

2.) Charles X was forced to abdicate.

e. Blow to the Metternich system and inspired revolutions elsewhere in Europe (Italy and the Netherlands).

Belgium Independence:

1. 1815: Dutch King William I wanted a buffer state as protection against any renewed French expansion.

2. Religion:

a. Holland - Calvinists

b. Belgium - Roman Catholics

3. Language:

a. Holland - German

b. Belgium - French

4. Belgium:

a. Developed the Factory System.

b. Most extensive railroad system in Europe.

c. Resented being politically dominated by the more conservative Dutch.

5. Revolution of 1830:

    1. Britain and France approved of Belgium independence and refused to intervene.
    2. Austria and Russia had revolutionary problems of their won a nd could not intervene.

6. Leopold of Saxe-Colburg-Gothe:

a. Minor German Prince, became King Leopold I of Belgium.

b. He had lived in Britain and been influenced by their Constitutional Monarchy.

c. Adopted the most liberal constitution in Europe at the time.

d. In 1839, Independence was officially recognized.

Louis Philippe: The Citizen King

1. Conflict: Republic or Monarchy.

2. Forces favoring a Republic were not strong enough.

3. Compromise:

a. Louis Philippe, the Duke of Orleans was chosen as king.

b. He had a record of liberal political beliefs.

c. First French monarch to identify himself with the interests of the Bourgeoisie.

4. Upper Middle Class benefited the most.

a. Suffrage: extended to include the 200,000 wealthiest citizens.

b. Labor Unions were outlawed.

c. High Tariffs were placed on foreign imports --- forced prices up hurting the working class.

5. Opposition:

a. Monarchists:

1.) Legitimacy: only descendants of Charles X could be the rightful king of France.

2.) Bonapartists: wanted a return to the glory of the empire of Napoleon.

b. The Church: many Roman Catholics still resented the separation of Church and State.

c. Republicans:

1.) The Government should grant political rights and make social changes to benefit all French citizens.

2.) Resentment over anti-labor policies and high tariffs.

Revolution of 1848

1. Growing opposition especially among the workers - a desire for change.

2. February: Organized meetings of opponents.

a. Spoke out against official policies of the government.

b. Louis Philippe: issued a decree prohibiting the final meeting.

3. Result of the Decree:

a. Led to riots in Paris.

b. National Guard called out to bring an end to the rioting.

c. National Guard joined the rioters.

d. Crisis: forced Louis Philippe to abdicate and flee to England.

4. Temporary Government set up in Paris.

a. Most active group was the Proletariat.

b. Second French Republic was proclaimed in 1848.

c. Disagreement over what form the new republic should take.

5. Economic Conditions in France:

a. France was suffering an economic depression.

b. Many of the Proletariat believed in Socialism.

c. They (workers) urged the establishment of National Workshops.

1.) Work was often useless -- just to provide jobs.

2.) Attempt was made to prevent them from competing with privately owned business.

6. April: Elections were held.

a. National Assembly to write a constitution.

b. Rural Farmers:

1.) Opposed to National Workshops and increased taxation to support them.

2.) June: a majority in the National Assembly (farmers) voted to stop National Workshops.

7. National Assembly allowed the army to assume authority.

a. Rebellion was crushed.

b. Socialist leaders were imprisoned, exiled, or executed.

c. Karl Marx was one of the socialists who was forced to leave.

Program of Reform: lasted less than six months.

The Second French Republic and Louis Napoleon:

1. National Assembly:

a. Moderate Course -- to avoid any more agitation and violence.

b. Promises were made to please all groups (ie. workers, liberals, Catholics, and peasants).

2. The New Constitution:

a. President:

1.) Elected for a four term.

2.) Not eligible for a second term.

b. One House Legislature - elected by Universal Manhood Suffrage.

3. December 1848 - Elections were held.

4. Louis Napoleon (Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte)

a. Elected President - four times as many votes as the next closest candidate.

b. Early life was spent in exile.

c. Member of the Carbonari in Italy (revolutionary society).

d. Attempted two unsuccessful coup d' etat.

* Captured after the second one, but escaped to England.

e. Returned to France after the Revolution of 1848 - his political position was unknown.

* Won the election on his name recognition not his political position.

5. Extension of Support:

a. Backing of the army.

b. Gained support of Catholics.

1.) Helped the Pope put down a revolt in Rome.

2.) He allowed the Church have greater control over education.

c. Encouraged the development of manufacturing -- to gain the favor of the middle class.

d. Established a program of public works to gain the support of the workers.

e. Farming Peasants:

1.) Better transportation to markets for their goods.

2.) A new bank was established to provide funds for agricultural improvements.

6. 1851: Legislature

a. Passed a law disfranchising many city workers.

b. Louis Napoleon vetoed the legislation and demanded Universal Manhood Suffrage be restored.

c. The Legislature refused, and Napoleon dissolved it.

7. Louis Napoleon assumed autocratic powers.

a. Issued a decree giving the right to vote to all Frenchmen of legal age.

b. Limited criticism by strict censorship and drove opponents out of France.

Establishment of the Second French Empire:

1. Plebiscite

a. It allowed Louis Napoleon to draft a new constitution for the Second French Republic.

b. Louis Napoleon was viewed by the French people as the defender of law and order.

c. Approved by a vote of almost twelve to one.

2. The New Constitution:

a. Louis Napoleon's term as president was extended to ten years.

b. Council of State: law making body appointed by the President.

c. All real power was in the hands of the President.

3. 1852 Plebiscite:

a. Another constitution was approved.

b. Allowed Louis Napoleon to take the tile of Emperor Napoleon III.

* Napoleon III had unlimited power.

4. Opposition:

a. Monarchists: did not believe Napoleon III had a legitimate claim to the throne.

b. Republicans: Napoleon III had abolished the Second French Republic.

5. Possible Opposition:

a. French Catholics

b. Middle Class Businessmen

c. Workers

d. Peasants

* "Each group expected Napoleon III to keep his promises."

* Problem: favoring one group might antagonize another.

6. Napoleon III followed a middle course attempting to balance favors to one group with favors to another group.

a. Extended favors to both the Bourbon Aristocracy and descendants of those who had supported Napoleon I.

b. Church: cooperated with the Church in France and abroad.

c. Middle Class: built railroads and levied tariffs.

d. Labor: Program of Public Works - roads, canals, harbors, public buildings and monuments.

7. The Government:

a. Legislature: elected by Universal Manhood Suffrage.

1.) Could only pass laws proposed by the emperor.

2.) Had no power over spending.

b. Opponents could be imprisoned or exiled without trial.

c. The Press was censored.

d. No freedom of speech.

e. Universities were closely watched by the government.

f. Real Power: in the hands of Napoleon III and ministers appointed by him.

The Crimean War

1. Hostility between France and Russia:

* Nicholas I did not recognize Napoleon III as a legitimate ruler (at first).

2. Foreign Policy: Win the cooperation of Britain in opposition to Russia.

3. Russia claimed the right to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

France claimed the right to protect Roman Catholics.

4. 1850's: both nations claimed jurisdiction over certain holy places in Palestine.

5. Dispute in Palestine:

a. Napoleon formed an Alliance with Britain.

b. Britain feared Russian expansion into the Eastern Mediterranean.

c. 1853: Britain and France supporting the Ottoman Empire.

* The war was officially declared in March 1854.

6. Most constructive achievement was the establishment of modern field hospitals and professional nursing for the wounded.

* Florence Nightingale

7. Russia was defeated after two years of fighting.

8. Results:

a. Russia gave up her claims to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

b. Russia was prohibited from building up a navy in the Black Sea.

c. France did not benefit from the peace terms.

Colonial Empire:

1. Established French control over Algeria (ie. native revolt).

2. 1859: Suez Canal

a. 1854: a French company gained permission to build a canal across the Isthmus of Suez.

b. Ferdinand de Lesseps: president of the company.

c. Egyptian Government bought half of the stock with the rest going to individual French citizens.

d. 1869: the Canal was completed.

e. 1875: Britain bought Egypt's controlling interest in the canal.

3. Far East: Napoleon III established French control over Cambodia and began to move into Indo China.

4. Western Hemisphere: Mexico

a. 1861: Benito Juarez overthrew a military dictatorship and was elected President.

b. Juarez refused to repay European Loans: France, Great Britain and Spain sent troops to take control of their customs office.

c. Great Britain and Spain came to terms with Juarez and withdrew their forces - but the French remained.

d. 1863: French Forces overthrew the Juarez Government.

e. Archduke Maximilian, brother of the Austrian emperor, was installed as emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III.

f. The United States protested this action as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine -- it could take no action because of the American Civil War.

1865: The U.S. sent troops to the Mexican border.

g. Europe: French problems with Prussia prevented France from giving Maximilian further help.

h. Maximilian abandoned by the French was captured and executed.